Montana is famously littered with caves. For both amateur and experienced cavers, there’s a veritable treasure trove of sights to see and explore.
From giant-chambered, impressively decorated caves covered in crystals to skinny, claustrophobic crevasses that sink deep into the earth, there’s a vast variety of cave systems spread across the state.
Why Are There So Many Caves In Montana?
Montana has several geological features that make it ideal for cave formation. Over 90% of the caves in Montana are the result of karst topography: this is when soft bedrock (in Montana it’s mostly limestone) is eroded away over eons by slightly acidic rainwater.
As water trickles through the limestone, it sweeps away trace particles of the limestone. Over thousands or millions of years, caverns appear where the limestone once was.
Caves can be very fragile structures and are home to delicately balanced ecosystems. Entering a cave can disrupt the careful balance that lies within, so it’s imperative that you take immense care when entering a cave.
If you are not an experienced caver, it’s best that you avoid entering unmanaged caves at all, and stick to the ones that offer guided tours as rangers will be able to detail all the best practices for entering a cave.
While there are over 300 known caves in Montana, here are a few of its most famous and interesting. They include:
- Bighorn Cavern
- Lick Creek Cave
- Big Ice Cave
- Devil’s Chute Cave
- Tears of the Turtle
- Indian Cave
- Pictograph Cave State Park
- Lookout Cave
- Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park
The Best Caves In Montana
Bighorn Cavern is just one cave in a karst system spanning both Montana and Wyoming that is found within the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Located in south-central Montana, it’s the largest cave in the state.
If you’d like to explore inside, it’s required that you go with an experienced guide, have all the necessary equipment, and obtain a permit from the Bighorn Canyon Visitor Center in Lovell, Wyoming.
This cave system continues into Wyoming, home to Horsethief Cave and Kane Cave.
2. Lick Creek Cave
While some Montanan caves have been intricately explored, mapped, and maintained, the ones left largely untouched are called “wild caves.” Lick Creek Cave, in northern Montana, is an example of a wild cave, though unfortunately, it’s not quite untouched.
As the most popular wild cave in the state, Lick Creek Cave sees many annual visitors, and unfortunately, some have them have littered the cave with garbage and irreparably damaged it with graffiti.
A cautionary tale about proper cave etiquette, it takes members of three separate organizations – the University of Montana Cave Club, the Northern Rocky Mountain Grotto, and the Bigfork Cave Club – to clean out the cave annually.
Despite their continued efforts, visitors continue to misuse Lick Creek Cave, but hopefully, more intensive education can curb this destruction in the future.
3. Big Ice Cave
Just one part of the Big Ice Cave Picnic Area and Interpretive Site, this perpetually frozen cave takes a bit of effort to reach but it’s well worth the trip and doesn’t require any exceptional experience caving or hiking to visit.
You’ll find the site just off of Forest Road 2308 near Bridger, just keep in mind that it can be difficult or impossible to access in the winter.
When you arrive at the picnic area, you’ll find the entrance to the cave has a steep descent, but you’ll be aided by a wooden boardwalk, staircase, and platform on the floor of the cave that makes it easy for even children to enter.
Remember to bring a flashlight, as it’s nearly pitch black inside the cave.
The Devils Chute Cave, an ice cave in the Snowy Mountains, is pretty far off the beaten path and is generally only visited by fairly experienced hikers. Located on a spur from West Peak Trail, this hike can turn into an all-day adventure depending on which way you’re coming from.
If you’re beginning at the Grand View trailhead at Crystal Lake, it’s about seven miles each way.
Once you arrive, you’ll get to see one of the best wild ice caves in Montana, just be sure that you take extra care of you’re surrounding while you’re in the area, and only enter the cave if you have both experience and the proper gear.
5. Tears of the Turtle
This wild cave on Turtlehead mountain is both hard to reach and only accessible to the very most experienced cavers. Though we still aren’t sure exactly how far it extends into the earth, surveys so far have reached a depth of 1629 feet, making it the deepest limestone cave in the United States. The entrance to the cave was only discovered in 2005, making it the “newest” cave on this list.
6. Indian Cave
Within the limestone cliffs that flank the Smith River, there are several caves, many of which contain red ochre pictographs painted by the original inhabitants of this land.
One of the more stately examples, though it is obtusely named, the Indian Cave has several prime examples of these historic paintings, both representational and abstract.
You must take extreme care when visiting Smith River Caves, as both the paintings and the limestone they’re on are very fragile.
One of the most popular state parks in Montana, Pictograph Cave State Park has three caves, a visitors center, and an extremely well maintained and highly trafficked paved trail between the different important sites.
Inside the caves, you’ll find several ancient red ochre paintings left by the original inhabitants of the land.
This is one of the few state parks in Montana that has a fully ADA accessible trail, a huge boon for people of all abilities.
8. Lookout Cave
Situated in north-central Montana, Lookout Cave is covered in pictographs, and was, for a long time, an active archeological site. Thousands of artifacts were recovered from the cave, including pieces of feathers and bone, as well as stone tools and sewing materials.
They were in relatively good condition because of the unique qualities of the cave; because these artifacts were kept away from moisture, sunlight, and such dramatically shifting temperatures, they fared much better over time than similar items found throughout the region.
The most popular cave in the state of Montana, the Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park contains some of the most ornately decorated caves in the nation.
Inside you’ll find a plethora of cascading crystals, unique rock formations, and speleothems: stalactites and stalagmites are examples of the latter phenomenon.
This is a thoroughly maintained cave. The Montana Parks Service maintains a visitor center, all of the park’s grounds, and offers guided tours in the caves.
Inside you’ll find this other-worldly landscape has been lit up in several different hues, adding to the experience.
Helpful Gear for Visiting Caves in Montana
As you progress in your caving knowledge and expertise, you’ll start to put together your arsenal of caving gear. To give you a rough idea of what kind of supplies are necessary for caving, here’s a list of some of the basic must-haves for intermediate to advanced caving.
Many of these items can come in handy even for beginners visiting the most basic caves or can be used for hiking and camping.
The easiest way to ensure you can see properly inside a cave is with a simple LED headlamp. This will illuminate the interior of the cave while keeping your hands free to navigate the space around you or use your camera.
GearLight LED Head Lamp:
- Super Bright - These powerful hands-free LED camping lights generate a brilliant, long-lasting beam with daylight color and definition. They even have a runtime of up to 10+ hours (on the low setting).
- Adjustable Comfort - The removable, washable, and adjustable headband on this LED headlamp comfortably fits adults and children alike. Weighing only 3 oz with batteries, it is the ideal head light for outdoor adventurers.
- Versatile Design - Our premium head lights are designed with a 45 degree adjustable head to direct light exactly where you need it. Choose from 7 different lighting modes from white strobe to red beam for safety.
- Weather Resistant - Water resistant and shockproof, the S500 headlamp flashlight is suitable for rain or snow, indoors or outdoors. Add it to the top of your running, hiking and camping accessories list!
- Value Pack - Each order contains 2 S500 GearLight head lamps (AAA batteries not included). Store one in your car or keep one at home!
An easy to manage, small camera that shoots in detail even in low light is a must if you’d like to photograph cave interiors. A mirrorless camera offers a perfect option, as they have small bodies, yet powerful functionality.
Sony Alpha a6400 Mirrorless Camera:
- 20.1MP stacked back illuminated 1" Exmor RS CMOS sensor w/ DRAM, large aperture 24-70mm1 F1.8-2.8 ZEISS Vario-Sonnar T lens
- Enhanced subject capture: wide 425 Phase/ 425 contrast detection points over 84 percent of the sensor
- Fast and accurate: Up to 11Fps continuous shooting at 24.2 MP raw with crisp, clear natural colors
- Multiple movie functions: Make time lapse movies or slow/quick motion videos without post processing
- Tiltable LCD screen: customizable for vlogging, still photography or recording a professional film
A Waterproof Day-Pack
Some of these caves can be difficult to reach. You could be hiking several miles into the wilderness which can be dangerous, especially if you’re carrying a camera, drone, or other electronic equipment. To help protect your gear, invest in a waterproof daypack.
Unigear Trop-Storm BP 35L Waterproof Backpack Marine Dry Bag:
- EXCELLENT WATERPROOF: Unigear Trop-strom BP is an excellent waterproof fortress. Made of impermeable material with roll-top closure, makes sure your gear stays bone-dry, protects them from splashes of water or brief immersion. Ideal for water sports and rainy days.
- DURABLE: High-density and thick PVC material to be puncture- and aging-resistant. Duraflex buckle and the metal lock can take on long-term using and reinforced joints make it tough-as-rocks.
- Use Quick Dry fabric and foam on the back and shoulder strap to provide carrying comfort and adjustable chest strap added stability and security during your nature exploration.
- LARGE CAPACITY: 35L capacity to hold your 2 days essential belongings, internal compartment suit for 15.6 laptops, and provide extra organization to keep your valuables safe and dry. Integrated separate wet compartment you won't worry about where to store wet items. External lash point make you quick lash and go, gives you more convenience.
- 365 DAYS 100% SATISFACTION: The Unigear Trop-strom Waterproof Backpack is designed to prevail over every water and rain obstacle in the outdoors -no matter rough seas, roaring rapids, or torrential downpours - to keep your gears far from wet. If you have any inquiries regarding this item, please feel free to contact Unigear customer service and we will contact you within 24hrs.
Even in the summer, the interior of caves can get be chilly. In fact, Big Ice Cave is literally frozen year-round! To keep yourself comfortable inside a cave, you can slip a packable down jacket into your daypack. These are designed to deliver maximum warmth while packing down to the size of a tall can.
Spring Season Packable Hooded Down Coat:
- 【PETITE & SLIM FIT】The puffer jacket sizes are 1 or 2 sizes smaller than usual US sizes, please pay attention to the size chart on image and choose 1-2 size up.
- 【Comfortable & Warm】 This women puffer jacket is made of 100% Nylon for its shell and lining, and polyester for its inner filling, perfect for winter skiing, hiking, journey, climbing, outdoor sports or casual wear, it is ideal for women outside wearing in this cold winter season. Comfortable and light fabric to warm your winter.
- 【Waterproof & Windproof】The designs of this women lightweight jackets features with waterproof Nylon fabric, detachable hood and elastic hem and cuffs which can fit your body and keep you out of the wet and cold.
- 【Multiple Convenient Pockets】2 zippered hand warmer pockets, 1 inner chest pockets with Velcro are great for keys, phone, wallet secure.
- 【Packable & Ultra Light】Due to highly compressible of down, this quilted jackets for women comes with pocketable design that can be stored in the carrying color-matched pouch for easy transport. The warm down coat will be folded and compacted inside of the package when delivery, you can lightly pat the jacket with your hands and then have it hang.
Whether you’re hiking or caving, it’s always best to wear a comfortable, but sturdy boot with plenty of ankle protection. In the Pacific Northwest, the classic Danner boot is practically worshiped for being the most durable, best performing, longest lasting boot money can buy.
Danner Women’s Hiking Boot:
- The product listed does not come with an insole,Stitchdown Construction - Handcrafted to provide a wider platform, our legendary stitchdown construction offers increased stability underfoot and many of our stitchdown boots can be recrafted.
- Made in USA ,Sienna Cache leather has subtle color variations for an antiqued effect that patinas beautifully over time
- Dri-Lex lining provides increased breathability and comfort. Retro One Piece Leather Upper. Shank-fiberglass
- Danner’s hand-crafted stitchdown construction increases durability and underfoot stability. Features fiberglass shank and dri-lex liner
- Vibram Kletterlift outsole is specifically designed for comfort and durability on both wet and dry surfaces